This article shows how a web application can easily be transformed into a native application. It uses the Internet Explorer, which is not among the best browsers, but often satisfying. In some aspects it’s probably even the best choice.
The article also contains download links to a tool that easily allows you to create standalone applications containing any HTML5 content as internal resource.
Although a web application already runs on nearly every platform, it might be desired to run the application in a native-like fashion. This can be achieved in several ways. The most recommended way would be to use node-webkit, which is probably also the most flexible solution.
It’s also possible to use PhoneGap / Cordova for this. However, this either requires Windows 8 or the use of a rather unmaintained spare time project.
These solutions (and most of the other solutions we have reviewed) have in common that the output is seldom a single file and often large in size. For example a node-webkit installation includes at least 7 files, which in total sum up to about 55 MB. For a simple web application this might be overkill.
The Cordova solution boils down to only one executable (~ 750 kB). However, it is required to ship the web application separately, which increases the chance to mess it up if the user decides to alter/delete files. If this is something you can live with, you can download the precompiled base application from our server. To run this, just copy the ‘www’ folder to the folder containing the Cordova.exe (renaming of the executable is possible).
With the www folder along with the application, the users might easily discover that it’s a web application and start playing around with the source files. Others might abandon the application even without testing, especially some die-hard who might still believe HTML5 + JS isn’t ready yet.
Thus, in order to build an application that truly appears to be a native application it is required to hide the payload and making it confusable identical to any native application and especially those built with Delphi.
In fact we decided to actually build an application in Delphi that serves the web application internally. The desired solution is one small executable only containing everything necessary to host a simple web application. It’s also desired to have a dead simple build process, that might later be added to the build chain in the IDE.
When we look at the Cordova base application we note that the secret for the small size lies in the fact that it uses the Internet Explorer – opposed to the use of chromium or any other web-kit fork. With recent Windows versions (latest Windows XP, Windows 7, 8 and later) all commonly used HTML5 features should be supported – at least enough to run simple applications.
For the ease of installation, the native host application should contain all required HTML code inside the application. This allows to copy the application by only copying the single executable.
The host application itself should use a TWebBrowser component with some minimum outer logic around. The fact that it can directly host resource files can be used to hide HTML, JS and CSS content. While for a single file (or a few of them) it might be sufficient to host it directly from the resources, it would be nice to have a simple server to host the files internally, especially since the direct resource loading does not support subfolders of any kind.
Packaged Web Application
Looking at all other solutions it’s obvious that we need a manifest file to setup the browser itself. Opposed to write our own format, we decided to pick the W3C standardized format for packaged web application. It uses an XML file (‘config.xml’) to describe the applications. It can be re-used for other applications as well (e.g. used in Tizen).
The content of the ‘config.xml’ is pretty simple and often self explaining. Here’s a short example:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <widget xmlns = "http://www.w3.org/ns/widgets" id = "http://www.smartmobilestudio.com/ExampleWidget" version = "2.0 Beta" height = "300" width = "300" viewmodes = "windowed"><name short="Example Widget"> The example Widget! </name> <feature name="Server"> <param name="Port" value="8090"/> </feature> <preferences name="IE"> <param name="version" value="11"/> </preferences> <description> A sample widget to demonstrate some of the possibilities. </description> <author href = "http://www.smartmobilestudio.com/" email = "firstname.lastname@example.org">Smart Mobile Studio</author> <icon src="SmartMS_Icon.ico"/> <content src="index.html"/> </widget>
Note the custom extension feature, named ‘Server’, which enables the use of an internal server to host the HTML files. This allows to use files from subdirectories, which otherwise can’t be located.
The ‘viewmodes’ is set to “windowed”, which equals a normal chromed window. The size of this window is specified by ‘width’ and ‘height’. The meta information (description, author & such) are not yet linked to the GUI, but copied into the executable.
The ‘content’ ‘src’ name must be identical to the HTML file that is embedded along the ‘config.xml’ file.
If no ‘config.xml’ file is found, default values should be used. And if no embedded ‘index.html’ is found the ‘index.html’ in the base directory should be used. Otherwise the application is expected to throw an error message before terminating itself.
After the prerequisites have been determined a reference implementation has already been created. It is available as open source on GitHub. Based on this code it can be used to extend existing applications by copying the relevant snippets. The project itself relies (only) on DWS and OmniXML.
In order to guarantee a certain compatibility, the browser emulation has to be adjusted (see ‘preferences’ section in ‘config.xml’). However, it is only possible to emulate a browser that is already present. Thus an emulation of IE11 (default) will fail if only IE9 is present on the system. Typically a Smart WebApp also works in older IE browsers, so compatibility even with older OS (like Windows XP or Windows 2000) shouldn’t be a problem, as long as a shim for the Internet Explorer is used. This is as easy as adding
to the uses section.
In order to achieve the dead simple build process we decided to create a tool that validates and embeds the HTML5 content into a native application template. In order to make it work, you must at least specify an ‘index.html’ file. In addition, it is recommended to specify a simple ‘config.xml’. Additional files can also easily be added.
Once you have specified your package you can save this as an executable (‘Save as…’). Doing so will trigger a validation process, which might result in (discardable) warnings. The final executable is about 2 MB in size and should run on all modern Windows versions that feature at least the IE9. It can be compressed further by using UPX for an even smaller file size.
Download: zip archive [1.897 kB]